Rhinocetin, a venom-derived integrin-specific antagonist inhibits collagen-induced platelet and endothelial cell functions
Vaiyapuri, S., Hutchinson, E. G., Ali, M. S., Dannoura, A., Stanley, R. G., Harrison, R. A., Bicknell, A. B. and Gibbins, J. M. (2012) Rhinocetin, a venom-derived integrin-specific antagonist inhibits collagen-induced platelet and endothelial cell functions. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287 (31). pp. 26235-26244. ISSN 1083-351X (In Press)
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.381483
Snaclecs are small non-enzymatic proteins present in viper venoms reported to modulate haemostasis of victims through effects on platelets, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this study, we have isolated and functionally characterised a snaclec which we named rhinocetin from the venom of West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. Rhinocetin was shown to comprise α and β chains with the molecular masses of 13.5 and 13kDa respectively. Sequence and immunoblot analysis of rhinocetin confirmed this to be a novel snaclec. Rhinocetin inhibited collagen-stimulated activation of human platelets in dose dependent manner, but displayed no inhibitory effects on glycoprotein VI (collagen receptor) selective agonist, CRP-XL-, ADP- or thrombin-induced platelet activation. Rhinocetin antagonised the binding of monoclonal antibodies against the α2 subunit of integrin α2β1 to platelets and coimmunoprecipitation analysis confirmed integrin α2β1 as a target for this venom protein. Rhinocetin inhibited a range of collagen induced platelet functions such as fibrinogen binding, calcium mobilisation, granule secretion, aggregation and thrombus formation. It also inhibited integrin α2β1 dependent functions of human endothelial cells. Together, our data suggest rhinocetin to be a modulator of integrin α2β1 function and thus may provide valuable insights into the role of this integrin in physiological and pathophysiological scenarios including haemostasis, thrombosis and envenomation.