Cloud-resolving model simulations with one- and two-way couplings via the weak temperature gradient approximation
Daleu, C. L., Woolnough, S. J. and Plant, R. S. (2012) Cloud-resolving model simulations with one- and two-way couplings via the weak temperature gradient approximation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 69 (12). pp. 3683-3699. ISSN 1520-0469
To link to this article DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-058.1
A cloud-resolving model is modified to implement the weak temperature gradient approximation in order to simulate the interactions between tropical convection and the large-scale tropical circulation. The instantaneous domain-mean potential temperature is relaxed toward a reference profile obtained from a radiative–convective equilibrium simulation of the cloud-resolving model. For homogeneous surface conditions, the model state at equilibrium is a large-scale circulation with its descending branch in the simulated column. This is similar to the equilibrium state found in some other studies, but not all. For this model, the development of such a circulation is insensitive to the relaxation profile and the initial conditions. Two columns of the cloud-resolving model are fully coupled by relaxing the instantaneous domain-mean potential temperature in both columns toward each other. This configuration is energetically closed in contrast to the reference-column configuration. No mean large-scale circulation develops over homogeneous surface conditions, regardless of the relative area of the two columns. The sensitivity to nonuniform surface conditions is similar to that obtained in the reference-column configuration if the two simulated columns have very different areas, but it is markedly weaker for columns of comparable area. The weaker sensitivity can be understood as being a consequence of a formulation for which the energy budget is closed. The reference-column configuration has been used to study the convection in a local region under the influence of a large-scale circulation. The extension to a two-column configuration is proposed as a methodology for studying the influence on local convection of changes in remote convection.
Abel, S. and B. Shipway, 2007: A comparison of cloud resolving model simulations of trade 687 wind cumulus with aircraft observations taken during RICO. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 688 133, 781–794. 689 Bellon, G. and A. Sobel, 2010: Multiple equilibria of the Hadley circulation in an 690 intermediate-complexity axisymmetric model. J. Climate, 23, 1760–1778. 691 Bretherton, C. and P. Smolarkiewcz, 1989: Gravity waves, compensating subsidence and 692 detrainment around cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 740–759. 693 Brown, P. and A. Heymsfield, 2001: The microphysical properties of tropical convective 694 anvil cirrus: A comparison of model and observations,. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 695 1535–1550. 696 Cohen, B. G. and G. C. Craig, 2006: Fluctuations in an equilibrium convective ensemble. 697 Part II: Numerical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2005–2015. 698 Dai, A., 2006: Precipitation characteristics in eighteen coupled climate models. J. Climate, 699 19, 4605–4630. 700 Garner, S. T., D. M. W. Frierson, I. M. Held, O. Paulius, and G. K. Vallis, 2007: Resolving 701 convection in a global hypohydrostatic model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 2061–2075. 702 Grabowski, W. W., J.-I. Yano, and M. W. Moncrieff, 2000: Cloud resolving modeling of 703 tropical circulations driven by large-scale sst gradients. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2022–2039. 704 Held, I. M., R. S. Hemler, and V. Ramaswamy, 1993: Radiative-convective equilibrium with 705 explicit two-dimensional moist convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 3909–3927. 28 Holloway, C. E. and J. D. Neelin, 2010: 706 Temporal relations of column water vapor and 707 tropical precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 1091–1105. 708 Holloway, C. E., S. J. Woolnough, and G. M. S. Lister, 2011: Precipitation distributions for 709 explicit versus parameterized convection in a large-domain high-resolution tropical case 710 study. To appear in: Q. J. R. Meterol. Soc. 711 Kuang, Z., 2008: Modeling the interaction between cumulus convection and linear gravity 712 waves using a limited-domain cloud system-resolving model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 576–591. 713 Kuang, Z., 2011: The wavelength dependence of the gross moist stability and the scale 714 selection in the instability of column-integrated moist static energy. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 715 61–74. 716 Kuang, Z., P. Blossey, and C. Bretherton, 2005: A new approach for 3D cloud-resolving 717 simulations of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02 809. 718 Lin, J.-L., M.-I. Lee, D. Kim, I.-S. Kang, and D. M. W. Frierson, 2008: The impacts of 719 convective parameterization and moisture triggering on AGCM-simulated convectively 720 coupled equatorial waves. J. Climate, 21, 883–909. 721 Lin, J.-L., et al., 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. 722 Part I: Convective signals. J. Climate, 19, 2665–2690. 723 Liu, P., et al., 2009: An MJO simulated by the NICAM at 14- and 7-km resolutions. Monthly 724 Weather Review, 137, 3254–3268. 725 Mapes, B., 1997: Equilibrium vs. activation control of large-scale variations of tropical deep 726 convection. The physics and parameterization of moist atmospheric convection, 321–358. 727 Mapes, B. and R. Houze Jr, 1995: Diabatic divergence profiles in western Pacific mesoscale 728 convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1807–1828. 29 Mapes, B. E. and 729 X. Wu, 2001: Convective eddy momentum tendencies in long cloud730 resolving model simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 517–526. 731 Masunaga, H., 2012: A satellite study of the atmospheric forcing and response to moist 732 convection over tropical and subtropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 150–167. 733 Neelin, J. and N. Zeng, 2000: A Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical CirculationModel - Formulation. 734 J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 1741–1766. 735 Nilsson, J. and K. Emanuel, 1999: Equilbrium atmospheres of a two-column radiative736 convective model. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 2239–2264. 737 Petch, J., A. Brown, and M. Gray, 2006: The impact of horizontal resolution on the simula738 tions of convective development over land. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 2031–2044. 739 Petch, J. and M. Gray, 1994: Sensitivity studies using a cloud resolving model simulation of 740 the Tropical West Pacific. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 2385–2394. 741 Randall, D., M. Khairoutdinov, A. Arakawa, and W. Grabowski, 2003: Breaking the cloud 742 parameterization deadlock. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 1547–1564. 743 Randall, D. A., et al., 2007: Climate models and their evaluation. Climate Change 2007: The 744 physical basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the 745 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, 746 M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 747 Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 748 Raymond, D. and X. Zeng, 2000: Instability and large-scale circulations in a two-column 749 model of the tropical troposphere. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 3117–3136. 750 Raymond, D. and X. Zeng, 2005: Modelling tropical atmospheric convection in the context 751 of the weak temperature gradient approximation. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 1301– 752 1320. 30 Raymond, D. J., 2007: 753 Testing a cumulus parametrization with a cumulus ensemble model 754 in weak-temperature-gradient mode. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 133, 1073–1085. 755 Robe, F. and K. Emanuel, 1996: Moist convective scaling: Some inferences from three756 dimensional cloud ensemble simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3265–3275. 757 Robe, F. and K. Emanuel, 2001: The effect of vertical wind shear on radiative-convective 758 equilibrium states. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 1427–1445. 759 Rotunno, R., J. Klemp, and M. Weisman, 1988: A theory for strong, long-lived squall lines. 760 J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 463–485. 761 Sessions, S., S. Sugaya, D. Raymond, and A. Sobel, 2010: Multiple equilibria in a cloud762 resolving model using the weak temperature gradient approximation. J. Geophys. Res., 763 115. 764 Shaevitz, D. and A. Sobel, 2004: Implementing the weak temperature gradient approxima765 tion with a full vertical structure. Monthly Weather Review, 132, 662–669. 766 Shutts, G. and M. Gray, 1994: A numerical modelling study of the geostrophic adjusment 767 process following deep convection. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 120, 1145–1178. 768 Shutts, G. J. and T. N. Palmer, 2007: Convective forcing fluctuations in a cloud-resolving 769 model: Relevance to the stochastic parameterization problem. J. Climate, 20, 187–202. 770 Sobel, A. and C. Bretherton, 2000: Modeling tropical precipitation in a single column. J. 771 Climate, 13, 4378–4392. 772 Sobel, A. and J. Neelin, 2006: The boundary layer contribution to intertropical convergence 773 zones in the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model framework. Theoretical and Com774 putational Fluid Dynamics, 20, 323–350. 775 Sobel, A. H., G. Bellon, and J. Bacmeister, 2007: Multiple equilibria in a single-column 776 model of the tropical atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22 804. 31 Swann, H., 777 1998: Sensitivity to the representation of precipitating ice in CRM simulations 778 of deep convection. Atmos. Res., 47-48, 415–435. 779 Tao, W., J. Simpson, C. Sui, C. Shie, B. Zhou, K. Lau, and M. Moncrieff, 1999: Equilibrium 780 states simulated by cloud-resolving models. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3128–3139. 781 Tompkins, A., 2000: The impact of dimensionality on long-term cloud-resolving model sim782 ulations. Monthly Weather Review, 128, 1521–1535. 783 Tompkins, A., 2001: Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: The 784 role of water vapor. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 529–545. 785 Tompkins, A. and G. Craig, 1998a: Radiative-convective equilibrium in a three-dimensional 786 cloud-ensemble model. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 124 (550), 2073–2097. 787 Tompkins, A. and G. Craig, 1998b: Time-scales of adjustment to radiative-convective equi788 librium in the tropical atmosphere. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 124, 2693–2713. 789 Vincent, D., 1994: The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ): A review. Monthly Weather 790 Review, 122, 1949–1970. 791 Wang, S. and A. Sobel, 2011: Response of convection to relative sea-surface temperature: 792 Cloud-resolving simulations in two and three dimensions. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D11 119. 793 Webster, P. and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean Response Experiment. 794 Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 1377–1416. 795 Woolnough, S., et al., 2010: Modelling convective processes during the suppressed phase 796 of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing single-column models with cloud-resolving 797 models. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 333–353. 798 Xu, K., et al., 2002: An intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the Atmospheric 799 Radiation Measurement summer 1997 Intensive Observation Period data. Quart. J. R. 800 Meteorol. Soc., 128, 593–624. 32 Yano, J.-I. and M. Bonazzola, 801 2009: Scale analysis for the large-scale tropical atmospheric 802 dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 159–172. 33