AID enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the size of cytosine C5 orbital cloud
Rangam, G., Schmitz, K.-M., Cobb, A. and Petersen-Mahrt, S. (2012) AID enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the size of cytosine C5 orbital cloud. PloS ONE, 7 (8). e43279. ISSN 1932-6203
To link to this article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043279
Activation induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosine to uracil, which is required for a functional humoral immune system. Previous work demonstrated, that AID also deaminates 5-methylcytosine (5 mC). Recently, a novel vertebrate modification (5-hydroxymethylcytosine - 5 hmC) has been implicated in functioning in epigenetic reprogramming, yet no molecular pathway explaining the removal of 5 hmC has been identified. AID has been suggested to deaminate 5 hmC, with the 5 hmU product being repaired by base excision repair pathways back to cytosine. Here we demonstrate that AID’s enzymatic activity is inversely proportional to the electron cloud size of C5-cytosine - H . F . methyl .. hydroxymethyl. This makes AID an unlikely candidate to be part of 5 hmC removal.