Available potential energy and exergy in stratified fluids
Tailleux, R. (2013) Available potential energy and exergy in stratified fluids. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 45. pp. 35-58. ISSN 1545-4479
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1146/annurev-fluid-011212-140620
Lorenz’s theory of available p otential energy (APE) remains the main framework for studying the atmospheric and oceanic energy cycles. Because the APE generation rate is the volume integral of a thermodynamic eﬃciency times the local diabatic heating/cooling rate, APE theory is often regarded as an extension of the theory of heat engines. Available energetics in classical thermodynamics, however, usually relies on the concept of exergy, and is usually measured relative to a reference state maximising entropy at constant energy, whereas APE’s reference state minimises p otential energy at constant entropy. This review seeks to shed light on the two concepts; it covers local formulations of available energetics, alternative views of the dynamics/thermodynamics coupling, APE theory and the second law, APE production/dissipation, extensions to binary ﬂuids, mean/eddy decomp ositions, APE in incompressible ﬂuids, APE and irreversible turbulent mixing, and the role of mechanical forcing on APE production.