Role of glutamate metabolism in bacterial responses towards acid and other stresses
Feehily, C. and Karatzas, K. A. G. (2012) Role of glutamate metabolism in bacterial responses towards acid and other stresses. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114 (1). pp. 11-24. ISSN 1364-5072
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05434
Glutamate plays a central role in a wide range of metabolic processes in bacterial cells. This review focuses on the involvement of glutamate in bacterial stress responses. In particular it reviews the role of glutamate metabolism in response against acid stress and other stresses. The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system has been implicated in acid tolerance in several bacterial genera. This system facilitates intracellular pH homeostasis by consuming protons in a decarboxylation reaction that produces γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) from glutamate. An antiporter system is usually present to couple the uptake of glutamate to the efflux of GABA. Recent insights into the functioning of this system will be discussed. Finally the intracellular fate of GABA will also be discussed. Many bacteria are capable of metabolising GABA to succinate via the GABA shunt pathway. The role and regulation of this pathway will be addressed in the review. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.