Drag produced by trapped lee waves and propagating mountain waves in a two-layer atmosphere
Teixeira, M. A.C., Argaín, J.L. and Miranda, P.M.A. (2013) Drag produced by trapped lee waves and propagating mountain waves in a two-layer atmosphere. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 139 (673). pp. 964-981. ISSN 1477-870X
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1002/qj.2008
The surface drag force produced by trapped lee waves and upward propagating waves in non-hydrostatic stratified flow over a mountain ridge is explicitly calculated using linear theory for a two-layer atmosphere with piecewise-constant static stability and wind speed profiles. The behaviour of the drag normalized by its hydrostatic single-layer reference value is investigated as a function of the ratio of the Scorer parameters in the two layers l_2/l_1 and of the corresponding dimensionless interface height l_1 H, for selected values of the dimensionless ridge width l_1 a and ratio of wind speeds in the two layers. When l_2/l_1 → 1, the propagating wave drag approaches 1 in approximately hydrostatic conditions, and the trapped lee wave drag vanishes. As l_2/l_1 decreases, the propagating wave drag progressively displays an oscillatory behaviour with l_1 H, with maxima of increasing magnitude due to constructive interference of reflected waves in the lower layer. The trapped lee wave drag shows localized maxima associated with each resonant trapped lee wave mode, occurring for small l_2/l_1 and slightly higher values of l_1 H than the propagating wave drag maxima. As l1a decreases, i.e. the flow becomes more non-hydrostatic, the propagating wave drag decreases and the regions of non-zero trapped lee wave drag extend to higher l_2/l_1. These results are confirmed by numerical simulations for l_2/l_1 = 0.2. In parameter ranges of meteorological relevance, the trapped lee wave drag may have a magnitude comparable to that of propagating wave drag, and be larger than the reference single-layer drag. This may have implications for drag parametrization in global climate and weather-prediction models.