Effect of the growth promoter avilamycin on emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria in the pig
Delsol, A. A., Randall, L., Cooles, S., Woodward, M. J., Sunderland, J. and Roe, J. M. (2005) Effect of the growth promoter avilamycin on emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria in the pig. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98 (3). pp. 564-571. ISSN 1364-5072
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02461.x
Aim: To assess the effect of the growth promoter avilamycin on emergence and persistence of resistance in enteric bacteria in the pig. Methods and Results: Pigs ( treated with avilamycin for 3 months and controls) were challenged with multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and faecal counts were performed for enterococci, Escherichia coli, S. Typhimurium and Campylobacter ( before, during and 5 weeks post-treatment). Representative isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance and for the presence of resistance genes. Avilamycin-resistant Enterococci faecalis (speciated by PCR) were isolated from the treated pigs and continued to be detected for the first week after treatment had ceased. The avilamycin- resistance gene was characterized by PCR as the emtA gene and speciation by PCR. MIC profiling confirmed that more than one strain of Ent. faecalis carried this gene. There was no evidence of increased antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter populations, although there was a higher incidence of tetB positive E. coli in the treated pigs than the controls. Conclusion: Although avilamycin selects for resistance in the native enterococci population of the pig, no resistant isolates were detected beyond 1 week post-treatment. This suggests that resistant isolates were unable to persist once selective pressure was removed and were out-competed by the sensitive microflora. Significance and Impact of the Study: Our data suggest the risk of resistant isolates becoming carcass contaminants and infecting humans could be minimized by introducing a withdrawal period after using avilamycin and prior to slaughter.