Farm disinfectants select for cyclohexane resistance, a marker of multiple antibiotic resistance, in Escherichia coli
Randall, L. P., Clouting, C. S., Gradel, K. O., Clifton-Hadley, F. A., Davies, R. D. and Woodward, M. J. (2005) Farm disinfectants select for cyclohexane resistance, a marker of multiple antibiotic resistance, in Escherichia coli. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98 (3). pp. 556-563. ISSN 1364-5072
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02488.x
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine if three classes of farm disinfectants were able to select for ciprofloxacin or cyclohexane tolerant [ indicative of a multiple antibiotic resistance ( MAR) phenotype] Escherichia coli and if cyclohexane-tolerant E. coli could be isolated from farms. Methods and Results: Chicken slurry containing ca 1 : 99 ratio ciprofloxacin resistant : susceptible E. coli ( 10 different resistant strains examined) was treated for 24 h with each of the disinfectants and examined for survival of resistant : susceptible strains. Ciprofloxacin-sensitive ( n = 5) and - resistant ( n = 5) E. coli were grown with sublethal concentrations of the disinfectants and then plated to agar containing ciprofloxacin or overlaid with cyclohexane. Escherichia coli ( n = 389) isolated from farms were tested for cyclohexane tolerance. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ( MIC) were determined against representative isolates and mutants. The disinfectants did not select for the ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in poultry slurry but following growth with each of the three disinfectants, higher numbers ( Pless than or equal to 0(.)023) of cyclohexane-tolerant E. coli were isolated and these had a MAR phenotype. Of the 389 farm E. coli tested, only one was cyclohexane tolerant. Conclusions: It is possible that in a farm environment, E. coli could be exposed to similar concentrations of the disinfectants that are selected for MAR type organisms under these laboratory conditions. Significance and Impact of the Study: Data from this study suggest that cyclohexane-resistant E. coli are not common on farms, but in view of the ease of isolating them in the laboratory with farm disinfectants, further investigations on farms are warranted.