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Roles of proteolysis in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor function

Cottrell, G. S. (2013) Roles of proteolysis in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor function. British Journal of Pharmacology, 168 (3). pp. 576-590. ISSN 1476-5381

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02234.x

Abstract/Summary

The enzymatic activity of peptidases must be tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled hydrolysis of peptide bonds, which could have devastating effects in biological systems. Peptidases are often generated as inactive propeptidases, secreted with endogenous inhibitors or they are compartmentalized. Propeptidases become active after proteolytic removal of N-terminal activation peptides by other peptidases. Some peptidases only become active towards substrates only at certain pHs, thus confining activity to specific compartments or conditions. This review discusses the different roles proteolysis plays in regulating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). At the cell-surface, certain GPCRs are regulated by the hydrolytic inactivation of bioactive peptides by membrane-anchored peptidases, which prevents signaling. Conversely, cell-surface peptidases can also generate bioactive peptides that directly activate GPCRs. Alternatively, cell-surface peptidases activated by GPCRs, can generate bioactive peptides to cause transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases, thereby promoting signaling. Certain peptidases can signals directly to cells, by cleaving GPCR to initiate intracellular signaling cascades. Intracellular peptidases also regulate GPCRs; lysosomal peptidases destroy GPCRs in lysosomes to permanently terminate signaling and mediate downregulation; endosomal peptidases cleave internalized peptide agonists to regulate GPCR recycling, resensitization and signaling; and soluble intracellular peptidases also participate in GPCR function by regulating the ubiquitination state of GPCRs, thereby altering GPCR signaling and fate. Although the use of peptidase inhibitors has already brought success in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, the discovery of new regulatory mechanisms involving proteolysis that control GPCRs may provide additional targets to modulate dysregulated GPCR signaling in disease.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > School of Pharmacy > Division of Pharmacology
ID Code:30250
Publisher:British Pharmacological Society

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