Benedict, J. J. and D. A. Randall, 2009: Structure of the Madden- Julian oscillation in the superparameterized CAM. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3277–3296.
Benedict, J. J. and D. A. Randall, 2011: Impacts of idealized air-sea coupling on Madden-Julian oscillation structure in the superpa- rameterized CAM. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 1990–2008.
Bretherton, C. S., M. E. Peters, and L. E. Back, 2004: Relation- ships between water vapor path and precipitation over the tropical oceans. J. Climate, 17, 1517–1528.
Davies, T., M. J. P. Cullen, A. J. Malcolm, M. H. Mawson, A. Stani- forth, A. A. White, and N. Wood, 2005: A new dynamical core for the Met Office’s global and regional modelling of the atmosphere. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 (608), 1759–1782.
Derbyshire, S. H., I. Beau, P. Bechtold, J.-Y. Grandpeix, J.-M. Piriou, J.-L. Redelsperger, and P. M. M. Soares, 2004: Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 3055–3080.
Fuchs, Z. and D. J. Raymond, 2002: Large-scale modes of a nonrotat- ing atmosphere with water vapor and cloud-radiation feedbacks. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1669–1679.
Grabowski, W. W., 2003: MJO-like coherent structures: Sensitivity simulations using the Cloud-Resolving Convection Parameteriza- tion (CRCP). J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 847–864.
Grabowski, W. W., 2006: Impact of explicit atmosphere-ocean cou- pling on MJO-like coherent structures in idealized aquaplanet sim- ulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2289–2306.
Grabowski, W. W. and M. W. Moncrieff, 2004: Moisture-convection feedback in the tropics. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 3081–3104. Grabowski, W. W. and P. K. Smolarkiewicz, 1999: CRCP: a cloud resolving convection parameterization for modeling the tropical
convecting atmosphere. Physica D, 133, 171–178.
Gregory, D. and P. R. Rowntree, 1990: A mass flux convection scheme with representation of cloud ensemble characteristics and stability-
dependent closure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1483–1506.
Hannah, W. M. and E. D. Maloney, 2011: The role of moisture- convection feedbacks in simulating the Madden-Julian Oscillation.
J. Climate, 24, 2754–2770.
Holloway, C. E. and J. D. Neelin, 2009: Moisture vertical structure,
column water vapor, and tropical deep convection. J. Atmos. Sci.,
Holloway, C. E., S. J. Woolnough, and G. M. S. Lister, 2012: Pre-
cipitation distributions for explicit versus parametrized convection in a large-domain high-resolution tropical case study. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 138, 1692–1708.
Huffman, G. J., et al., 2007: The TRMM Multisatellite Precipita- tion Analysis (TMPA): quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydropublished onlineme- teorol., 78, 2179–2196.
Janowiak, J. E., R. J. Joyce, and Y. Yarosh, 2001: A real-time global half-hourly pixel-resolution infrared dataset and its applications. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 205–217.
Kalnay, E. and coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanal- ysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–471.
Khairoutdinov, M. F. and D. A. Randall, 2001: A cloud resolving
model as a cloud parameterization in the NCAR community cli- mate system model: Preliminary results. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3617–3720.
Kiladis, G. N., K. H. Straub, and P. T. Haertel, 2005: Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2790–2809.
Kim, D., A. H. Sobel, E. D. Maloney, D. M. W. Frierson, and I.- S. Kang, 2011: A systematic relationship between intraseasonal variability and mean state bias in AGCM simulations. J. Climate, 24, 5506–5520.
Lean, H. W., P. A. Clark, M. Dixon, N. M. Roberts, A. Fitch, R. Forbes, and C. Halliwell, 2008: Characteristics of high- resolution versions of the Met Office Unified Model for forecast- ing convection over the United Kingdom. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3408–3424.
Liebmann, B. and C. A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) outgoing longwave radiation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1275–1277.
Lin, J.-L., et al., 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. Part I: Convective signals. J. Climate, 19, 2665–2690.
Liu, C. and M. W. Moncrieff, 2004: Effects of convectively generated gravity waves and rotation on the organization of convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 2218–2227.
Liu, P., et al., 2009: An MJO simulated by the NICAM at 14- and 7-km resolutions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 3254–3268.
Lock, A. P., A. R. Brown, M. R. Bush, G. M. Martin, and R. N. B. Smith, 2000: A new boundary layer mixing scheme. Part I: Scheme description and single-column model tests. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3187–3199.
Lorenz, E. N., 1955: Available potential energy and the maintenance of the general circulation. Tellus, 7, 157–167.
Love, B. S., A. J. Matthews, and G. M. S. Lister, 2011: The diur- nal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent in a high- resolution atmospheric model. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137 (657), 934–947.
Madden, R. A. and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40-50-day tropical oscillation–A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814–837.
Majda, A. J. and J. A. Biello, 2004: A multiscale model for tropical intraseasonal oscillations. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 101, 4736–4741.
Majda, A. J. and S. N. Stechmann, 2009: A simple dynamical model with features of convective momentum transport. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 373–392.
Maloney, E. D., 2009: The moist static energy budget of a composite tropical intraseasonal oscillation in a climate model. J. Climate, 22 (3), 711–729.
Maloney, E. D. and D. L. Hartmann, 1998: Frictional moisture con- vergence in a composite life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11, 2387–2403.
Miura, H., M. Satoh, T. Nasuno, A. T. Noda, and K. Oouchi, 2007: A Madden-Julian Oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model. Science, 318 (5857), 1763–1765.
Miyakawa, T., Y. N. Takayabu, T. Nasuno, H. Miura, M. Satoh, and M. W. Moncrieff, 2012: Convective momentum transport by rainbands within a Madden-Julian oscillation in a global nonhy- drostatic model with explicit deep convective processes. Part I: Methodology and general results. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 1317–1338.
Muller, C. J., L. E. Back, P. A. O’Gorman, and K. A. Emanuel, 2009: A model for the relationship between tropical precipitation and column water vapor. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L16804, doi: 10.1029/2009GL039667.
Nasuno, T., H. Miura, M. Satoh, A. T. Noda, and K. Oouchi, 2009: Multi-scale organization of convection in a global numerical simu- lation of the December 2006 MJO event using explicit moist pro- cesses. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 87, 335–345.
Neelin, J. D., O. Peters, and K. Hales, 2009: The transition to strong convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2367–2384.
Neelin, J. D. and J.-Y. Yu, 1997: Modes of tropical variability under
convective adjustment and the Madden-Julian oscillation. Part I:
Analytical results. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1876–1894.
Ohring, G., A. Gruber, and R. Ellingson, 1984: Satellite determina- tions of the relationship between total longwave radiation flux and infrared window radiance. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 416–425. Oouchi, K., A. T. Noda, M. Satoh, H. Miura, H. Tomita, T. Nasuno, and S. Iga, 2009: A simulated preconditioning of typhoon genesis controlled by a boreal summer Madden-Julian Oscillation event in
a global cloud-system-resolving model. SOLA, 5, 65–68.
Pearson, K. J., R. J. Hogan, R. P. Allan, G. M. S. Lister, and C. E. Holloway, 2010: Evaluation of the model representation of the evo- lution of convective systems using satellite observations of out- going longwave radiation. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20206, doi:
Peters, O. and J. D. Neelin, 2006: Critical phenomena in atmospheric
precipitation. Nature Physics, 2, 393–396.
Raymond, D. J., 2000: Thermodynamic control of tropical rainfall.
Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 889–898.
Roberts, N. M., 2003: The impact of a change to the use of the con-
vection scheme to high-resolution simulations of convective events.
Tech. Rep. 407, UK Met Office. 30 pp.
Shutts, G., 2006: Upscale effects in simulations of tropical convection
on an equatorial beta-plane. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean., 42, 30–58. Shutts, G., 2008: The forcing of large-scale waves in an explicit simu- lation of deep tropical convection. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean., 45, 1–25. Sobel, A. H. and E. D. Maloney, 2012: An idealized semi-empirical framework for modeling the Madden-Julian oscillation. J. Atmos.
Sci., 69, 1691–1705.
Sobel, A. H., E. D. Maloney, G. Bellon, and D. M. Frierson, 2008: The
role of surface fluxes in tropical intraseasonal oscillations. Nature
Geosci., 1, 653–657.
Sobel, A. H., E. D. Maloney, G. Bellon, and D. M. Frierson, 2010:
Surface fluxes and tropical intraseasonal variability: a reassess- ment. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2, 27 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES. 2010.2.5.
Steinheimer, M., M. Hantel, and P. Bechtold, 2008: Convection in Lorenz’s global energy cycle with the ECMWF model. Tellus, 60A, 1001–1022.
Taniguchi, H., W. Yanase, and M. Satoh, 2010: Ensemble simula- tion of Cyclone Nargis by a global cloud-system-resolving model— modulation of cyclogenesis by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 88, 571–591.
Tian, B., D. E. Waliser, E. J. Fetzer, B. H. Lambrigtsen, Y. L. Yung, , and B. Wang, 2006: Vertical moist thermodynamic structure and spatial-temporal evolution of the MJO in AIRS observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2462–2485.
Tokioka, T., K. Yamazaki, A. Kitoh, and T. Ose, 1988: The equa- torial 30–60 day oscillation and the Arakawa-Schubert penetrative cumulus parameterization. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 883–901.
Waliser, D. E. and M. Moncrieff, 2008: The Year of Tropical Convec- tion (YOTC) Science Plan: A joint WCRP-WWRP/THORPEX International Initiative. Tech. Rep. 1452, WMO/TD, WCRP 130, WWRP/THORPEX 9, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland. 26 pp.
Waliser, D. E., M. W. Moncrieff, and Coauthors, 2012: The “Year” of Tropical Convection (May 2008-April 2010): Climate variability and weather highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 1189–1218.
Wheeler, M. C. and H. H. Hendon, 2004: An all-season real-time multivariate MJO Index: Development of an index for monitoring and prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 1917–1932.
Wilson, D. R. and S. P. Ballard, 1999: A microphysically based pre- cipitation scheme for the UK Meteorological Office Unified Model. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 1607–1636.
Woolnough, S. J., F. Vitart, and M. A. Balmaseda, 2007: The role of the ocean in the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Implications for MJO prediction. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133, 117–128.
Zhou, L., R. B. Neale, M. Jochum, and R. Murtugudde, 2012: Im- proved Madden-Julian oscillations with improved physics: The impact of modified convection parameterizations. J. Climate, 25,