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Fish oil intakes providing dietary attainable levels of EPA and DHA reduces blood pressure in adults with systolic hypertension in a retrospective analysis

Minihane, A. M., Armah, C. K., Miles, E. A., Madden, J. M., Clark, A. B., Caslake, M. J., Packard, C. J., Kofler, B. M., Leitz, G., Curtis, P. J., Mathers, J. C., Williams, C. M. and Calder, P. C. (2016) Fish oil intakes providing dietary attainable levels of EPA and DHA reduces blood pressure in adults with systolic hypertension in a retrospective analysis. Journal of Nutrition, 146 (3). pp. 516-523. ISSN 1541-6100

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3945/jn.115.220475

Abstract/Summary

Background: Although a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined the impact of the n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3) on blood pressure and vascular function, the majority have used doses of EPA+DHA of > 3 g per d,which are unlikely to be achieved by diet manipulation. Objective: The objective was to examine, using a retrospective analysis from a multi-center RCT, the impact of recommended, dietary achievable EPA+DHA intakes on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and microvascular function in UK adults. Design: Healthy men and women (n = 312) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT consuming control oil, or fish oil providing 0.7 g or 1.8 g EPA+DHA per d in random order each for 8 wk. Fasting blood pressure and microvascular function (using Laser Doppler Iontophoresis) were assessed and plasma collected for the quantification of markers of vascular function. Participants were retrospectively genotyped for the eNOS rs1799983 variant. Results: No impact of n-3 fatty acid treatment or any treatment * eNOS genotype interactions were evident in the group as a whole for any of the clinical or biochemical outcomes. Assessment of response according to hypertension status at baseline indicated a significant (P=0.046) fish oil-induced reduction (mean 5 mmHg) in systolic blood pressure specifically in those with isolated systolic hypertension (n=31). No dose response was observed. Conclusions: These findings indicate that, in those with isolated systolic hypertension, daily doses of EPA+DHA as low as 0.7 g bring about clinically meaningful blood pressure reductions which, at a population level, would be associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. Confirmation of findings in an RCT where participants are prospectively recruited on the basis of blood pressure status is required to draw definite conclusions.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Agriculture, Policy and Development > Food Production and Quality Division > Animal, Dairy and Food Chain Sciences (ADFCS)
ID Code:50319
Publisher:American Society for Nutrition

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