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High-protein diets for weight management: Interactions with the intestinal microbiota and consequences for gut health. A position paper by the my new gut study group

Blachier, F., Beaumont, M., Portune, K. J., Steuer, N., Lan, A., Audebert, M., Khodorova, N., Andriamihaja, M., Airinei, G., Benamouzig, R., Davila, A.-M., Armand, L., Rampelli, S., Brigidi, P., Tomé, D., Claus, S. P. and Sanz, Y. (2018) High-protein diets for weight management: Interactions with the intestinal microbiota and consequences for gut health. A position paper by the my new gut study group. Clinical Nutrition. ISSN 0261-5614

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.016

Abstract/Summary

This review examines to what extent high-protein diets (HPD), which may favor body weight loss and improve metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese individuals, may also impact the gut environment, shaping the microbiota and the host-microbe (co)metabolic pathways and products, possibly affecting large intestine mucosa homeostasis. PubMed-referenced publications were analyzed with an emphasis on dietary intervention studies involving human volunteers in order to clarify the beneficial vs. deleterious effects of HPD in terms of both metabolic and gut-related health parameters; taking into account the interactions with the gut microbiota. HPD generally decrease body weight and improve blood metabolic parameters, but also modify the fecal and urinary contents in various bacterial metabolites and co-metabolites. The effects of HPD on the intestinal microbiota composition appear rather heterogeneous depending on the type of dietary intervention. Recently, HPD consumption was shown to modify the expression of genes playing key roles in homeostatic processes in the rectal mucosa, without evidence of intestinal inflammation. Importantly, the effects of HPD on the gut were dependent on the protein source (i.e. from plant or animal sources), a result which should be considered for further investigations. Although HPD appear to be efficient for weight loss, the effects of HPD on microbiota-derived metabolites and gene expression in the gut raise new questions on the impact of HPD on the large intestine mucosa homeostasis leading the authors to recommend some caution regarding the utilization of HPD, notably in a recurrent and/or long-term ways.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences
ID Code:79884
Uncontrolled Keywords:Bacterial metabolites and co-metabolites, Large intestine mucosa, Microbiota, high-protein diet
Publisher:Elsevier

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