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Placental extracellular vesicles express active dipeptidyl peptidase IV; levels are increased in gestational diabetes mellitus

Kandzija, N., Zhang, W., Motta-Mejia, C., Mhlomi, V., McGowan-Downey, J., James, T., Cerdeira, A. S., Tannetta, D., Sargent, I., Redman, C. W., Bastie, C. C. and Vatish, M. (2019) Placental extracellular vesicles express active dipeptidyl peptidase IV; levels are increased in gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of extracellular vesicles, 8 (1). 1617000. ISSN 2001-3078

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1080/20013078.2019.1617000

Abstract/Summary

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder in pregnancy and is characterized by insulin resistance and decreased circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GDM resolves rapidly after delivery implicating the placenta in the disease. This study examines the biological functions that cause this pathology. The placenta releases syncytiotrophoblast-derived extracellular vesicles (STB-EVs) into the maternal circulation, which is enhanced in GDM. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is known to play a role in type 2 diabetes by breaking down GLP-1, which in turn regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. STB-EVs from control and GDM women were analysed. We show that normal human placenta releases DPPIV-positive STB-EVs and that they are higher in uterine than paired peripheral blood, confirming placental origin. DPPIV-bound STB-EVs from normal perfused placentae are dose dependently inhibited with vildagliptin. DPPIV-bound STB-EVs from perfused placentae are able to breakdown GLP-1 . STB-EVs from GDM perfused placentae show greater DPPIV activity. Importantly, DPPIV-bound STB-EVs increase eightfold in the circulation of women with GDM. This is the first report of STB-EVs carrying a biologically active molecule that has the potential to regulate maternal insulin secretion.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Food Microbial Sciences Research Group
ID Code:84390
Uncontrolled Keywords:Placental extracellular vesicles, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, gestational diabetes mellitus, gliptin, pregnancy, syncytiotrophoblast-derived extracellular vesicles
Publisher:Taylor & Francis

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