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Why does early childhood deprivation increase the risk for depression and anxiety in adulthood? A developmental cascade model

Golm, D., Maughan, B., Barker, E. D., Hill, J., Kennedy, M., Knights, N., Kreppner, J., Kumsta, R., Schlotz, W., Rutter, M. and Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2020) Why does early childhood deprivation increase the risk for depression and anxiety in adulthood? A developmental cascade model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 61 (9). pp. 1043-1053. ISSN 0021-9630

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/jcpp.13205

Abstract/Summary

Abstract Background: Using data from the English & Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study we recently reported that early time-lmited exposure to severe institutional deprivation is associated with early onset and persistent neurodevelopmental problems and later onset emotional problems. Here we examine possible reasons for the late emergence of emotional problems in this cohort. Our main focus is on testing a developmental cascade mediated via the functional impact of early-appearing neurodevelopmental problems on late adolescent functioning. We also explore a second putative pathway via sensitization to stress. Methods: The ERA study includes 165 Romanian individuals who spent their early lives in grossly depriving institutions and were subsequently adopted into UK families, along with 52 UK adoptees with no history of deprivation. Age six years symptoms of neurodevelopmental problems and age 15 anxiety/depression symptoms were assessed via parental reports. Young adult symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by both parent and self-reports; young adults also completed measures of stress reactivity , exposure to adverse life events and functioning in work and interpersonal relationships. Results: The path between early institutional deprivation and adult emotional problems was mediated via the impact of early neurodevelopmental problems on unemployment and poor friendship functioning during the transition to adulthood. The findings with regard to early deprivation, later life stress reactivity and emotional problems were inconclusive. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that the risk for adult depression and anxiety following extreme institutional deprivation is explained through the effects of early neurodevelopmental problems on later social and vocational functioning. Future research should more fully examine the role of stress susceptibility in this model.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences > Development
Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences > Psychopathology and Affective Neuroscience
ID Code:88893
Publisher:Wiley

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