Intracellular signalling pathways regulating the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise and nutritional changes
Matsakas, A. and Patel, K. (2009) Intracellular signalling pathways regulating the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise and nutritional changes. Histology and Histopathology, 24 (2). pp. 209-222. ISSN 0213-3911
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The focus of the present review is to assimilate current knowledge concerning the differing signalling transduction cascades that control muscle mass development and affect skeletal muscle phenotype following exercise or nutritional uptake. Effects of mechanical loading on protein synthesis are discussed. Muscle growth control is regulated by the interplay of growth promoting and growth suppressing factors, which act in concert. Much emphasis has been placed on understanding how increases in the rate of protein synthesis are induced in skeletal muscle during the adaptive process. One key point to emerge is that protein synthesis following resistance exercise or increased nutrient availability is mediated through changes in signal transduction involving the phosphorylation of mTOR and sequential activation of downstream targets. On the other hand, AMPK activation plays an important role in the inhibition of protein synthesis by suppressing the function of multiple translation regulators of the mTOR signalling pathway in response to cellular energy depletion and low metabolic conditions. The effects of exercise and/or nutritional uptake on the activation of signalling molecules that regulate protein synthesis are highlighted, providing a better understanding of the molecular changes in the cell.