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Confirmatory structural validation and refinement of the Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Symptom Scale

Newlands, A. F. ORCID:, Kramer, M. ORCID:, Roberts, L. ORCID:, Maxwell, K. ORCID:, Price, J. L. ORCID: and Finlay, K. A. ORCID: (2023) Confirmatory structural validation and refinement of the Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Symptom Scale. BJUI Compass. ISSN 2688-4526

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1002/bco2.297


ObjectivesTo confirm the structural validity of the Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Symptom Scale (RUTISS), determining whether a bifactor model appropriately fits the questionnaire's structure and identifying areas for refinement. Used in conjunction with established clinical testing methods, this patient‐reported outcome measure addresses the urgent need to validate the patient perspective.Patients and methodsA clinically and demographically diverse sample of 389 people experiencing recurrent UTI across 37 countries (96.9% female biological sex, aged 18–87 years) completed the RUTISS online. A bifactor graded response model was fitted to the data, identifying potential items for deletion if they indicated significant differential item functioning (DIF) based on sociodemographic characteristics, contributed to local item dependence or demonstrated poor fit or discrimination capability.ResultsThe final RUTISS comprised a 3‐item symptom frequency section, a 1‐item global rating of change scale and an 11‐item general ‘rUTI symptom and pain severity’ subscale with four sub‐factor domains measuring ‘urinary symptoms’, ‘urinary presentation’, ‘UTI pain and discomfort’ and ‘bodily sensations’. The bifactor model fit indices were excellent (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.041, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.995, standardised root mean square residual [SRMSR] = 0.047), and the mean‐square fit statistics indicated that all items were productive for measurement (mean square fit indices [MNSQ] = 0.64 – 1.29). Eighty‐one per cent of the common model variance was accounted for by the general factor and sub‐factors collectively, and all factor loadings were greater than 0.30 and communalities greater than 0.60. Items indicated high discrimination capability (slope parameters > 1.35).ConclusionThe 15‐item RUTISS is a patient‐generated, psychometrically robust questionnaire that dynamically assesses the patient experience of recurrent UTI symptoms and pain. This brief tool offers the unique opportunity to enhance patient‐centred care by supporting shared decision‐making and patient monitoring.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences > Department of Psychology
ID Code:113645
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Engineering


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