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Differential effects of the venoms of Russell’s viper and Indian cobra on human myoblasts

Bin Haidar, H., Almeida, J. R., Williams, J., Guo, B., Bigot, A., Senthilkumaran, S., Vaiyapuri, S. ORCID: and Patel, K. (2024) Differential effects of the venoms of Russell’s viper and Indian cobra on human myoblasts. Scientific Reports, 14. 3184. ISSN 2045-2322

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1038/s41598-024-53366-9


Local tissue damage following snakebite envenoming remains a poorly researched area. To develop better strategies to treat snakebites, it is critical to understand the mechanisms through which venom toxins induce envenomation effects including local tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate how the venoms of two medically important Indian snakes (Russell's viper and cobra) affect human skeletal muscle using a cultured human myoblast cell line. The data suggest that both venoms affect the viability of myoblasts. Russell’s viper venom reduced the total number of cells, their migration, and the area of focal adhesions. It also suppressed myogenic differentiation and induced muscle atrophy. While cobra venom decreased the viability, it did not largely affect cell migration and focal adhesions. Cobra venom affected the formation of myotubes and induced atrophy. Cobra venom-induced atrophy could not be reversed by small molecule inhibitors such as varespladib (a phospholipase A2 inhibitor) and prinomastat (a metalloprotease inhibitor), and soluble activin type IIb receptor (a molecule used to promote regeneration of skeletal muscle), although the antivenom (raised against the Indian ‘Big Four’ snakes) has attenuated the effects. However, all these molecules rescued the myotubes from Russell’s viper venom-induced atrophy. This study demonstrates key steps in the muscle regeneration process that are affected by both Indian Russell’s viper and cobra venoms and offers insights into the potential causes of clinical features displayed in envenomed victims. Further research is required to investigate the molecular mechanisms of venom-induced myotoxicity under in vivo settings and develop better therapies for snakebite-induced muscle damage.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences > Biomedical Sciences
Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > School of Pharmacy > Division of Pharmacology
ID Code:114992
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group


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