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Protease-activated receptor 2: activation, signalling and function

Cottrell, G. S. ORCID:, Amadesi, S., Schmidlin, F. and Bunnett, N. (2003) Protease-activated receptor 2: activation, signalling and function. Biochemical Society Transactions, 31 (6). pp. 1191-1197. ISSN 1470-8752

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PARs (protease-activated receptors) are a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors for proteases from the circulation, inflammatory cells and epithelial tissues. This report focuses on PAR(2), which plays an important role in inflammation and pain. Pancreatic (trypsin I and II) and extrapancreatic (trypsin IV) trypsins, mast cell tryptase and coagulation factors VIIa and Xa cleave and activate PAR(2). Proteases cleave PAR(2) to expose a tethered ligand that binds to the cleaved receptor. Despite this irreversible activation, PAR(2) signalling is attenuated by beta-arrestin-mediated desensitization and endocytosis, and by lysosomal targeting and degradation, which requires ubiquitination of PAR(2). beta-Arrestins also act as scaffolds for the assembly of multi-protein signalling complexes that determine the location and function of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases. Observations of PAR(2)-deficient mice support a role for PAR(2) in inflammation, and many of the effects of PAR(2) activators promote inflammation. Inflammation is mediated in part by activation of PAR(2) in the peripheral nervous system, which results in neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > School of Pharmacy > Division of Pharmacology
No Reading authors. Back catalogue items
ID Code:30286
Uncontrolled Keywords:Animals Hydrolysis Mice Receptor, PAR-2/genetics/*metabolism Signal Transduction
Publisher:Portland Press

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