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The M curve and the performance of Spanish international new ventures

Almodóvar, P. and Rugman, A. M. (2014) The M curve and the performance of Spanish international new ventures. British Journal of Management, 25 (S1). S6-S23. ISSN 1467-8551 (Special Issue: Strategies for Firm Globalization and Regionalization)

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1111/1467-8551.12022


In this paper we address three challenges. First, we discuss how international new ventures (INVs) are probably not explained by the Uppsala model as there is no time for learning about foreign markets in newly born and small firms. Only in the longer term can INVs develop experiential learning to overcome the liability of foreignness as they expand abroad. Second, we advance theoretically on previous research demonstrating that the multinationality−performance relationship of INVs follows a traditional S-shaped relationship, but they first experience a ‘born global illusion’ which leads to a non-traditional M curve. Third, using a panel data analysis for the period 1994–2008 we find empirically that Spanish INVs follow an inverted U curve in the very short term, where no learning takes place, but that experience gained over time yields an M-curve relationship once learning takes place.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Henley Business School > International Business and Strategy
ID Code:33225

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