Carbohydrate-based anti-adhesive inhibition of Vibrio cholerae toxin binding to GM1-OS immobilized into artificial planar lipid membranes
Sinclair, H. R., Kemp, F., de Slegte, J., Gibson, G. R. and Rastall, R. A. (2009) Carbohydrate-based anti-adhesive inhibition of Vibrio cholerae toxin binding to GM1-OS immobilized into artificial planar lipid membranes. Carbohydrate Research, 344 (15). pp. 1968-1974. ISSN 0008-6215
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2009.06.038
We have studied 'food grade' sialyloligosaccharides (SOS) as anti-adhesive drugs or receptor analogues, since the terminal sialic acid residue has already been shown to contribute significantly to the adhesion and pathogenesis of the Vibrio cholerae toxin (Ctx). GM1-oligosaccharide (GM1-OS) was immobilized into a supporting POPC lipid bilayer onto a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip, and the interaction between uninhibited Ctx and GM1-OS-POPC was measured. SOS inhibited 94.7% of the Ctx binding to GM1-OS-POPC at 10 mg/mL. The SOS EC50 value of 5.521 mg/mL is high compared with 0.2811 mu g/mL (182.5 pM or 1.825 x 10(-10) M) for GM1-OS. The commercially available sialyloligosaccharide (SOS) mixture Sunsial E (R) is impure, containing one monosialylated and two disialylated oligosaccharides in the ratio 9.6%. 6.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and 66.4% protein. However, these inexpensive food-grade molecules are derived from egg yolk and could be used to fortify conventional food additives, by way of emulsifiers, sweeteners and/or preservatives. The work further supports our hypothesis that SOS could be a promising natural anti-adhesive glycomimetic against Ctx and prevent subsequent onset of disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved