The differential tissue distribution of the citrus flavanone naringenin following gastric instillation
Abd El Mohsen, M., Marks, J., Kuhnle, G., Rice-Evans, C., Moore, K., Gibson, G., Debnam, E. and Srai, S. K. (2004) The differential tissue distribution of the citrus flavanone naringenin following gastric instillation. Free Radical Research, 38 (12). pp. 1329-1340. ISSN 1071-5762
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1080/10715760400017293
Citrus flavonoids have been investigated for their biological activity, with both anti-inflammatory and -carcinogenic effects being reported. However, little information is known on the bioavailability of these compounds in vivo. The objectives of this study were to determine the tissue distribution of naringenin after gastric gavage of [H-3]-naringenin to rats. Unlabelled naringenin was also used to quantify the levels of naringenin and its major metabolites in tissues and eliminated in the urine and faeces. Significant radioactivity was detected in the plasma as well as all tissues examined 2 h post-gavage. After 18 h, higher levels of radioactivity were retained in plasma and tissues (55% of the administered radioactivity). Investigation of the nature of metabolites, using unlabelled naringenin, revealed that the glucuronides were the major components in plasma, tissues and urine, in addition to the colonic metabolite 3-(4- hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, detected in the urine. The aglycone was the form extensively retained in tissues after 18 h post-gavage. Total identified metabolites detected after 18 h in most tissues were only 1-5% of the levels detected after 2 h. However, the brain, lungs and heart retained 27, 20 and 11%, respectively, relative to the total metabolites detected at 2 h. While radioactive detection suggests increased levels of breakdown products of naringenin after 18 h versus 2 h, the products identified using unlabelled naringenin are not consistent with this, suggesting that a predominant proportion of the naringenin breakdown products at 18 h are retained as smaller decomposition molecules which cannot yet be identified.