Algorithm for generating defective graphene sheets
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/ct900113f
An algorithm is presented for the generation of molecular models of defective graphene fragments, containing a majority of 6-membered rings with a small number of 5- and 7-membered rings as defects. The structures are generated from an initial random array of points in 2D space, which are then subject to Delaunay triangulation. The dual of the triangulation forms a Voronoi tessellation of polygons with a range of ring sizes. An iterative cycle of refinement, involving deletion and addition of points followed by further triangulation, is performed until the user-defined criteria for the number of defects are met. The array of points and connectivities are then converted to a molecular structure and subject to geometry optimization using a standard molecular modeling package to generate final atomic coordinates. On the basis of molecular mechanics with minimization, this automated method can generate structures, which conform to user-supplied criteria and avoid the potential bias associated with the manual building of structures. One application of the algorithm is the generation of structures for the evaluation of the reactivity of different defect sites. Ab initio electronic structure calculations on a representative structure indicate preferential fluorination close to 5-ring defects.