The separate but related origins of the recency and the modality effect in free recall
Beaman, C. P. and Morton, J. (2000) The separate but related origins of the recency and the modality effect in free recall. Cognition, 77 (3). B59-B65. ISSN 0010-0277
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/S0010-0277(00)00107-4
The recency effect found in free recall can be accounted for almost entirely in terms of the recall of ordered sequences of items. It is such sequences, presented at the end of the stimulus list but recalled at the very beginning of the response protocol, which produce a recency effect. Such sequences are recalled at the beginning of the response protocol equally often following auditory and visual presentation. These same stimulus sequences are also frequently recalled other than initially in the response protocol following auditory presentation. However, such responses are rarely found following visual presentation. The modality effect in free recall, the advantage of auditory over visual presentation, can be substantially accounted for in these terms. Theoretical and procedural implications of these data are discussed.