A comparison of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration as concentration processes for skim milk prior to drying
Syrios, A., Faka, M., Grandison, A. S. and Lewis, M. J. (2011) A comparison of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration as concentration processes for skim milk prior to drying. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 64 (4). pp. 467-472. ISSN 1471-0307
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0307.2011.00719.x
Skim milk was concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF) and ultrafiltration (UF) and the retentates were spray-dried. The resulting powders were reconstituted to 25% TS and sterilised to evaluate their heat stability. Reverse osmosis led to maximum retention of calcium, a fall in pH for its retentate and its reconstituted powder. All RO powders produced a weak gel on heating. Some calcium was lost during NF and a greater amount during UF. Their resulting reconstituted powders had a higher pH than those produced by RO. Powders produced by UF showed poor heat stability. Only one powder produced by NF showed good heat stability. This could be improved by addition of stabilisers at appropriate addition rates.