Gut microbial catabolism of grape seed flavan-3-ols by human faecal microbiota. Targetted analysis of precursor compounds, intermediate metabolites and end-products.
Sánchez-Patán, F., Cueva, C., Monagas, M., Walton, G. E., Gibson, G. R., Martín-Álvarez, P. J., Moreno-Arribas, M. V. and Bartolomé, B. (2012) Gut microbial catabolism of grape seed flavan-3-ols by human faecal microbiota. Targetted analysis of precursor compounds, intermediate metabolites and end-products. Food Chemistry, 131 (1). pp. 337-347. ISSN 0308-8146
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.011
In vitro batch culture fermentations were conducted with grape seed polyphenols and human faecal microbiota, in order to monitor both changes in precursor flavan-3-ols and the formation of microbial-derived metabolites. By the application of UPLC-DAD-ESI-TQ MS, monomers, and dimeric and trimeric procyanidins were shown to be degraded during the first 10 h of fermentation, with notable inter-individual differences being observed between fermentations. This period (10 h) also coincided with the maximum formation of intermediate metabolites, such as 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone and 4-hydroxy-5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid, and of several phenolic acids, including 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxymandelic acid, and gallic acid (5–10 h maximum formation). Later phases of the incubations (10–48 h) were characterised by the appearance of mono- and non-hydroxylated forms of previous metabolites by dehydroxylation reactions. Of particular interest was the detection of γ-valerolactone, which was seen for the first time as a metabolite from the microbial catabolism of flavan-3-ols. Changes registered during fermentation were finally summarised by a principal component analysis (PCA). Results revealed that 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone was a key metabolite in explaining inter-individual differences and delineating the rate and extent of the microbial catabolism of flavan-3-ols, which could finally affect absorption and bioactivity of these compounds.