Mozzarella-type curd made from buffalo, cows’ and ultrafiltered cows’ milk. 1. Rheology and microstructure
Hussain, I., Bell, A. E. and Grandison, A. S. (2013) Mozzarella-type curd made from buffalo, cows’ and ultrafiltered cows’ milk. 1. Rheology and microstructure. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6 (7). pp. 1729-1740. ISSN 1935-5130
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1007/s11947-012-0834-5
Rennet-induced curd was made from both natural buffalo and cows’ milk, and ultrafiltered cows’ milk (cows’ milk was concentrated such that it had a chemical composition approximately equivalent to that of the buffalo milk). These milk samples were compared on the basis of their rheology, physicochemical characteristics and curd microstructure. The ionic and soluble calcium contents were found to be similar in all milk samples studied. The total and casein bound calcium were higher in concentrated cows’ milk than in standard cows’ milk. Both cows’ milk types were found to have lower total and casein bound calcium than the buffalo milk. This is probably due to concentration of the colloidal part of milk (casein), during the ultrafiltration (UF) process. The rennet coagulation time was similar in UF cows’ and buffalo milk while both were shorter when compared with that of the cows’ milk. The dynamic moduli (G′, G″) values were higher in both the buffalo and UF cows’ milk than in the cows’ milk after 90 min coagulation. The loss tangent, however, was found to be similar in both the UF cows’ and buffalo milk curds and was lower than that observed for the cows’ milk (0.42, 0.42 and 0.48, respectively). The frequency profile of each type of curd was recorded 90 min after the enzyme addition (0.1–10 Hz); all samples were found to be “weak” viscoelastic, frequency dependent gels. The yield stress was also measured 95 min after the enzyme addition, and a higher value was observed in buffalo milk curd when compared with other curd samples made from both the natural cows’ milk and the UF cows’ milk. The cryo-scanning electron and confocal laser scanning micrographs showed that curd structure appeared to be more “dense” and less porous in buffalo milk than cows’ milk even after concentration to equivalent levels of protein/total solids to those found in the buffalo milk.