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Farnesoid X receptor and liver X receptor ligands initiate formation of coated platelets

Unsworth, A. J., Bye, A. P., Tannetta, D. S., Desborough, M. J. R., Kriek, N., Sage, T., Allan, H. E., Crescente, M., Yaqoob, P., Warner, T. D., Jones, C. I. and Gibbins, J. M. (2017) Farnesoid X receptor and liver X receptor ligands initiate formation of coated platelets. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 37 (8). pp. 1482-1493. ISSN 1524-4636

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.309135

Abstract/Summary

The liver X receptors (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been identified in human platelets. Ligands of these receptors have been shown to have nongenomic inhibitory effects on platelet activation by platelet agonists. This, however, seems contradictory with the platelet hyper-reactivity that is associated with several pathological conditions that are associated with increased circulating levels of molecules that are LXR and FXR ligands, such as hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We, therefore, investigated whether ligands for the LXR and FXR receptors were capable of priming platelets to the activated state without stimulation by platelet agonists. Treatment of platelets with ligands for LXR and FXR converted platelets to the procoagulant state, with increases in phosphatidylserine exposure, platelet swelling, reduced membrane integrity, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, and microparticle release observed. Additionally, platelets also displayed features associated with coated platelets such as P-selectin exposure, fibrinogen binding, fibrin generation that is supported by increased serine protease activity, and inhibition of integrin αIIbβ3. LXR and FXR ligand-induced formation of coated platelets was found to be dependent on both reactive oxygen species and intracellular calcium mobilization, and for FXR ligands, this process was found to be dependent on cyclophilin D. We conclude that treatment with LXR and FXR ligands initiates coated platelet formation, which is thought to support coagulation but results in desensitization to platelet stimuli through inhibition of αIIbβ3 consistent with their ability to inhibit platelet function and stable thrombus formation in vivo.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences > Biomedical Sciences
ID Code:71082
Uncontrolled Keywords:bile, blood coagulation, blood platelets, calcium, insulin
Publisher:American Heart Association

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