Effects of stabiliser addition and in-container sterilisation on selected properties of milk related to casein micelle stability
Tsioulpas, A., Koliandris, A., Grandison, A. S. and Lewis, M. J. (2010) Effects of stabiliser addition and in-container sterilisation on selected properties of milk related to casein micelle stability. Food Chemistry, 122 (4). pp. 1027-1034. ISSN 0308-8146
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Different stabilising salts and calcium chloride were added to raw milk to evaluate changes in pH, ionic calcium, ethanol stability, casein micelle size and zeta potential. These milk samples were then sterilised at 121 °C for 15 min and stored for 6 months to determine how these properties changed. Addition of tri-sodium citrate (TSC) and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) to milk reduced ionic calcium, increased pH and increased ethanol stability in a concentration-dependent fashion. There was relatively little change in casein micelle size and a slight decrease in zeta potential. Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) also reduced ionic calcium considerably, but its effect on pH was less noticeable. In contrast, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (SDHP) reduced pH but had little effect on ionic calcium. In-container sterilisation of these samples reduced pH, increased ethanol stability and increased casein micelle size, but had variable effects on ionic calcium; for DSHP and SDHP, ionic calcium decreased after sterilisation but, for SHMP, it remained little changed or increased. Milk containing 3.2 mM SHMP and more than 4.5 mM CaCl2 coagulated upon sterilisation. All other samples were stable but there were differences in browning, which increased in intensity as milk pH increased. Heat-induced sediment was not directly related to ionic calcium concentration, so reducing ionic calcium was not the only consideration in terms of improving heat stability. After 6 months of storage, the most acceptable product, in appearance, was that containing SDHP, as this minimised browning during sterilisation and further development of browning during storage.