Ionic calcium and pH as predictors of stability of milk to UHT processing
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This paper describes the use of pH and calcium ion electrodes for investigating factors affecting the heat stability of UHT milk with added calcium chloride. Calcium chloride was added to raw milk to manipulate ionic calcium and pH to within the range that may be typically encountered in raw milk of different compositions and microbial quality. Addition of only 5 mM calcium chloride was sufficient to induce considerable changes in pH, ionic calcium and ethanol stability and alter its stability to UHT treatment. There was a strong relationship between pH decrease and increase in ionic calcium when pH was reduced, whether by addition of calcium chloride or by acidification. Calcium chloride addition was found to increase sediment formation in UHT treated milk. However, sediment could be reduced by addition of stabilizers. Those most effective were ones which decreased ionic calcium and increased pH, such as trisodium citrate and disodium hydrogen phosphate. Sediment formation following UHT treatment was only slight for milk samples whose ethanol stability was greater than 80%.