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Consistent effects of whey protein fortification on consumer perception and liking of solid food matrices (cakes and biscuits) regardless of age and saliva flow

Norton, V., Lignou, S., Bull, S. P., Gosney, M. A. and Methven, L. (2020) Consistent effects of whey protein fortification on consumer perception and liking of solid food matrices (cakes and biscuits) regardless of age and saliva flow. Foods, 9 (9). 1328. ISSN 2304-8158

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3390/foods9091328

Abstract/Summary

Although there are numerous high protein products on the market, they are typically not designed with, or for, older consumers. This is surprising considering that dietary guidelines recognise the need for higher protein intake in later life. Protein fortified products are, however, associated with negative sensory attributes and poor consumer acceptance. This paper investigates the extent of mouthdrying sensations within a high protein solid food matrix, along with the effect of age and saliva flow. Solid models using cakes and biscuits, with or without protein fortification, were investigated. The sensory profile and physical properties were analysed and two volunteer studies (n = 84; n = 70) were carried out using two age groups (18–30; 65+). Volunteers rated individual perception and liking of products, and salivary flow rates (mL/min) were measured. Unstimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in older adults, although this was not found to influence product perception. Protein fortification of cakes and biscuits significantly increased (p < 0.05) perceived mouthdrying, hardness and “off” flavours, and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) melting rate, moistness and liking compared with the control versions. There is a clear need to address negative sensory attributes associated with protein fortification of cakes and biscuits to ensure product suitability for older adults.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Food Research Group
ID Code:92963
Publisher:MDPI

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