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Factors affecting cellular uptake of anthocyanins: the role of pH, glucose and anthocyanin structure

Cahyana, Y., Mills, C. E., Huda, S. and Gordon, M. H. (2022) Factors affecting cellular uptake of anthocyanins: the role of pH, glucose and anthocyanin structure. Nutrients, 14 (22). 4807. ISSN 2072-6643

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3390/nu14224807


Anthocyanins have poor bioavailability but factors affecting this remain unclear. Uptake into cells could impact the bioavailability and therefore, understanding factors affecting antho-cyanin uptake is pivotal to improve their bioavailability as well as reveal the mechanism for their uptake. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anthocyanin structure, pH and glucose on the uptake of anthocyanins by Caco-2 cells. Anthocyanin extract from strawberry and red grape at 10 or 20 µM was added to Caco-2 cells. Anthocyanin toxicity to the cells was firstly examined to ensure the same cell viability. The uptake was carried out at pH 7 and 6.5 to evaluate the effect of pH. Glucose of 1mM was used to investigate the effect of glucose. The result shows that anthocyanins toxicity was dependent on the concentration and length of exposure. Anthocyanin uptake was concentration-dependent and affected by their structures in which cyanidin-3-glucoside uptake was higher than pelargonidin-3-glucoside. No metabolites from Caco-2 cell activity were detected. An increased uptake with the decrease in pH was observed which may be linked to the increase in anthocyanins stability and may indicate the role of proton co-transporter. This also suggests that the jejunum would be the favorable section of small intestine for anthocyanin uptake. Reduced anthocyanin uptake in the presence of glucose suggested that facilitative glucose transporter could be involved in the uptake of anthocyanins by Caco-2 cells.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:108799


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