Conjugated linoleic acid and human health-related outcomes
Yaqoob, P., Tricon, S., Williams, C.M., Grimble, R.F., Burdge, G.C. and Calder, P.C. (2006) Conjugated linoleic acid and human health-related outcomes. Nutrition Bulletin, 31 (2). pp. 93-99. ISSN 0141-9684
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2006.00560.x
There has been increasing interest in health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) based on findings with laboratory animals. Some human studies have also suggested health benefits of CLA, but because of the mixes used these could not be readily associated with a particular isomer of CLA. A recent study examined the separate effects of near-pure cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) on health-related outcomes in healthy young males. The CLA isomers were provided in capsules and at three doses (up to about 2.5 g/day) each for 8 weeks. Both c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were incorporated in a dose–response fashion into blood lipids and cells. At the doses and durations used, neither isomer of CLA affected bodyweight, body mass index or body composition, insulin sensitivity, immune function or markers of inflammation. However, at the doses and durations used, c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA had opposing effects on blood lipid concentrations. Altered dairy cow-feeding practices were used to produce c9,t11 CLA-rich milk and, from this ultra heat-treated milk, cheese and butter were produced. The milk and the dairy products made from it had ninefold higher contents of c9,t11 CLA, higher contents of n-3 fatty acids and lower contents of total fat and of saturated fatty acids. They also contained much higher contents of trans-vaccenic acid (tVA). The modified dairy products were used in a 6-week controlled dietary intervention study in healthy middle-aged males. c9,t11 CLA and tVA were incorporated from dairy products into blood lipids and cells. Consumption of the CLA-rich (and tVA-rich) dairy products did not affect bodyweight or body mass index, insulin sensitivity or inflammatory markers. However, there were some detrimental effects on blood lipids. These effects may be due to tVA rather than to c9,t11 CLA, as they are consistent with the effects of trans fatty acids and not consistent with the effects of c9,t11 CLA identified in the earlier study with c9,t11 CLA in capsules.