Metabolism of dietary phytochemicals: a review of the metabolic forms identified in humans
Spencer, J.P.E., Abd El Mohsen, M. and Minihane, A.M. (2006) Metabolism of dietary phytochemicals: a review of the metabolic forms identified in humans. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, 4 (3-4). pp. 187-203. ISSN 1540-7535
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Dietary derived phytochemicals have been proposed to act as beneficial agents in a multitude of disease states, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the biological effect of such compounds will ultimately depend on the cellular effects of their circulating metabolites. The focus of this review is to examine the current knowledge regarding the biotransformation of different classes of phytochemicals in humans. Notably, the data compiled here represents only that obtained from human studies following consumption of phytochemicals in meals or in a dose comparable with normal dietary intake. In addition, we have considered only those studies where more powerful analytical techniques have been used in the characterisation of metabolic forms. We provide clear information regarding the types of metabolites that are likely to be present in humans following oral ingestion. Ultimately this will help identify metabolic forms that should represent the focus of future cellular mechanistic investigations.