Comparative effects of fatty acids on endothelial inflammatory gene expression
Shaw, D.I., Hall, W.L., Jeffs, N.R. and Williams, C.M. (2007) Comparative effects of fatty acids on endothelial inflammatory gene expression. European Journal of Nutrition, 46 (6). pp. 321-328. ISSN 1436-6207
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1007/s00394-007-0669-4
Background: Endothelial dysfunction may be related to adverse effects of some dietary fatty acids (FAs). Although in vitro studies have failed to show consistent findings, this may reflect the diverse experimental protocols employed and the limited range of FAs and end points studied. Aims: To investigate the effect of dietary FA type (saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), concentration, incubation time and cell stimulation state, on a broad spectrum of endothelial inflammatory gene expression. Methods: Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with and without stimulation (+/- 10 ng/ml TNF alpha), the effects of arachidonic (AA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), linoleic (LA), oleic (OA) and palmitic acids (PA) (10, 25 and 100 mu M), on the expression of genes encoding a number of inflammatory proteins and transcription factors were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results: Individual FAs differentially affect endothelial inflammatory gene expression in a gene-specific manner. EPA, LA and OA significantly up-regulated MCP-1 gene expression compared to AA (p = 0.001, 0.013, 0.008, respectively) and DHA (p < 0.0005, = 0.004, 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, cell stimulation state and FA incubation time significantly influenced reported FA effects on gene expression. Conclusions: The comparative effects of saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated FAs on endothelial gene expression depend on the specific FA investigated, its length of incubation, cell stimulation state and the gene investigated. These findings may explain existing disparity in the literature. This work was funded by the EC, Framework Programme 6 via the LIPGENE project (FOOD-CT-2003-505944).
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