Recovery of astaxanthin using colloidal gas aphrons (CGA): a mechanistic study
Dermiki, M., Gordon, M.H. and Jauregi, P. (2009) Recovery of astaxanthin using colloidal gas aphrons (CGA): a mechanistic study. Separation and Purification Technology, 65 (S1). pp. 54-64. ISSN 1383-5866
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To link to this item DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2007.12.023
The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism responsible for the recovery of astaxanthin using Colloidal Gas Aphrons (CGA), which are surfactant stabilised microbubbles. The latter were produced using different surfactant solutions (Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB)-cationic, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-anionic, TWEEN 60-non-ionic and mixtures of TWEEN 60-SPAN 80- non-ionic with varying hydrophobicity) at stirring speed 8000 rpm and stirring time 5 min. Experiments were carried out at varying pH and volumetric ratios of astaxanthin to CGA, and with two different astaxanthin standard suspensions: (i) astaxanthin dispersed in aqueous solutions and (ii) astaxanthin dispersed in ethanolic/aqueous solutions with different compositions of ethanol (20/80 (v/v) and 40/60 (v/v)). When astaxanthin is dispersed in aqueous solutions the separation seems to occur mainly by electrostatic interactions. Therefore the recoveries are higher in the case of the cationic surfactant when astaxanthin particles are strongly negatively charged, as shown by the zeta potential measurements. When ethanol is present, highest recoveries are achieved with CGA produced from the non-ionic surfactant, which indicates that, under these conditions, separation is driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. In experiments with ethanolic/aqueous suspensions, when the hydrophobicity of the surfactant was increased by increasing volumes of SPAN 80, the CGA produced were less stable; thus higher recoveries of astaxanthin under conditions that favour hydrophobic interactions were not observed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.