In vitro bioaccessibility and gut biotransformation of polyphenols present in the water-insoluble cocoa fraction
Fogliano, V., Corollaro, M. L., Vitaglione, P., Napolitano, A., Ferracane, R., Travaglia, F., Arlorio, M., Costabile, A., Klinder, A. and Gibson, G. (2011) In vitro bioaccessibility and gut biotransformation of polyphenols present in the water-insoluble cocoa fraction. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 55 (Supplement). pp. 44-55. ISSN 1613-4125
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201000360
Scope: Cocoa, especially the water-insoluble cocoa fraction (WICF), is a rich source of polyphenols. In this study, sequential in vitro digestion of the WICF with gastrointestinal enzymes as well as its bacterial fermentation in a human colonic model system were carried out to investigate bioaccessibility and biotransformation of WICF polyphenols, respectively. Methods and results: The yield of each enzymatic digestion step and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured and solubilized phenols were characterized by MS/MS. Fermentation of WICF and the effect on the gut microbiota, SCFA production and metabolism of polyphenols was analyzed. In vitro digestion solubilized 38.6% of WICF with pronase and Viscozyme L treatments releasing 51% of the total phenols from the insoluble material. This release of phenols does not determine a reduction in the total antioxidant capacity of the digestion-resistant material. In the colonic model WICF significantly increased of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli as well as butyrate production. Flavanols were converted into phenolic acids by the microbiota following a concentration gradient resulting in high concentrations of 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3-HPP) in the last gut compartment. Conclusion: Data showed that WICF may exert antioxidant action through the gastrointestinal tract despite its polyphenols being still bound to macromolecules and having prebiotic activity.