Variation in antibiotic-induced microbial recolonization impacts on the host metabolic phenotypes of rats
Swann, J. R., Tuohy, K. M., Lindfors, P. , Brown , D. T., Gibson, G. R., Wilson, I. D., Sidaway, J., Nicholson, J. K. and Holmes, E. (2011) Variation in antibiotic-induced microbial recolonization impacts on the host metabolic phenotypes of rats. Journal of Proteome Research, 10 (8). pp. 3590-3603. ISSN 1535-3907
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1021/pr200243t
The interaction between the gut microbiota and their mammalian host is known to have far-reaching consequences with respect to metabolism and health. We investigated the effects of eight days of oral antibiotic exposure (penicillin and streptomycin sulfate) on gut microbial composition and host metabolic phenotype in male Han-Wistar rats (n = 6) compared to matched controls. Early recolonization was assessed in a third group exposed to antibiotics for four days followed by four days recovery (n = 6). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the intestinal contents collected at eight days showed a significant reduction in all bacterial groups measured (control, 1010.7 cells/g feces; antibiotic-treated, 108.4). Bacterial suppression reduced the excretion of mammalian-microbial urinary cometabolites including hippurate, phenylpropionic acid, phenylacetylglycine and indoxyl-sulfate whereas taurine, glycine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, and fumarate excretion was elevated. While total bacterial counts remained notably lower in the recolonized animals (109.1 cells/g faeces) compared to the controls, two cage-dependent subgroups emerged with Lactobacillus/Enterococcus probe counts dominant in one subgroup. This dichotomous profile manifested in the metabolic phenotypes with subgroup differences in tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and indoxyl-sulfate excretion. Fecal short chain fatty acids were diminished in all treated animals. Antibiotic treatment induced a profound effect on the microbiome structure, which was reflected in the metabotype. Moreover, the recolonization process was sensitive to the microenvironment, which may impact on understanding downstream consequences of antibiotic consumption in human populations.
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