Optimisation of the extraction and processing conditions of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) for incorporation into a beverage
Harbourne, N., Jacquier, J. C. and O'Riordan, D. (2009) Optimisation of the extraction and processing conditions of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) for incorporation into a beverage. Food Chemistry, 115 (1). pp. 15-19. ISSN 0308-8146
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.044
The total phenols, apigenin 7-glucoside, turbidity and colour of extracts from dried chamomile flowers were studied with a view to develop chamomile extracts with potential anti-inflammatory properties for incorporation into beverages. The extraction of all constituents followed pseudo first-order kinetics. In general, the rate constant (k) increased as the temperature increased from 57 to 100 °C. The turbidity only increased significantly between 90 and 100 °C. Therefore, aqueous chamomile extracts had maximum total phenol concentration and minimum turbidity when extracted at 90 °C for 20 min. The effect of drying conditions on chamomile extracted using these conditions was determined. A significant reduction in phenol concentration, from 19.7 ± 0.5 mg/g GAE in fresh chamomile to 13 ± 1 mg/g GAE, was found only in the plant material oven-dried at 80 °C (p ⩽ 0.05). The biggest colour change was between fresh chamomile and that oven-dried at 80 °C, followed by samples air-dried. There was no significant difference in colour of material freeze-dried and oven-dried at 40 °C.