Effect of dairy-based protein sources and temperature on growth, acidification and exopolysaccharide production of Bifidobacterium strains in skim milk
Prasanna, P. H. P., Grandison, A. S. and Charalampopoulos, D. (2012) Effect of dairy-based protein sources and temperature on growth, acidification and exopolysaccharide production of Bifidobacterium strains in skim milk. Food Research International, 47 (1). pp. 6-12. ISSN 0963-9969
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.01.004
The aim of the present study was to find out the best growing conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing bifidobacteria, which improve their functionality in yoghurt-like products. Two Bifidobacterium strains were used in this study, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486 and Bifidobacterium infantis NCIMB 702205. In the first part of the study the effect of casein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, added at 1.5% w/v in skim milk, was evaluated in terms of cell growth and EPS production; skim milk supplemented with yeast extract served as the control. Among the various nitrogen sources, casein hydrolysate (CH) showed the highest cell growth and EPS production for both strains after 18 h incubation and therefore it was selected for subsequent work. Based on fermentation experiments using different levels of CH (from 0.5 to 2.5% w/v) it was deduced that 1.5% (w/v) CH resulted in the highest EPS production, yielding 102 and 285 mg L− 1 for B. infantis NCIMB 702205 and B. longum subsp. infantis CCUG 52486, respectively. The influence of temperature on growth and EPS production of both strains was further evaluated at 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C for up to 48 h in milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) CH. The temperature had a significant effect on growth, acidification and EPS production. The maximum growth and EPS production were recorded at 37 °C for both strains, whereas no EPS production was observed at 25 °C. Lower EPS production for both strains were observed at 42 °C, which is the common temperature used in yoghurt manufacturing compared to that at 37 °C. The results showed that the culture conditions have a clear effect on the growth, acidification and EPS production, and more specifically, that skim milk supplemented with 1.5% (w/v) CH could be used as a substrate for the growth of EPS-producing bifidobacteria, at 37 °C for 24 h, resulting in the production of a low fat yoghurt-like product with improved functionality.