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Increased whole grain consumption does not affect blood biochemistry, body composition or gut microbiology in healthy low habitual whole grain consumers

Ampatzoglou, A., Atwal, K., Maidens, C., Williams, C., Ross, A., Thielecke, F., Jonnalagadda, S., Kennedy, O. and Yaqoob, P. (2015) Increased whole grain consumption does not affect blood biochemistry, body composition or gut microbiology in healthy low habitual whole grain consumers. Journal of Nutrition, 145 (2). pp. 215-221. ISSN 1541-6100

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3945/jn.114.202176

Abstract/Summary

Background Whole grain (WG) foods have been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but studies are inconsistent and effects on cardiovascular risk markers are not clear. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increasing WG consumption to at least 80 g/d on overall dietary intake, body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, blood glucose, gastrointestinal microbiology and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy, middle-age adults with habitual WG intake < 24 g/d. The trial was registered as ISRCTN36521837. Methods Eligible subjects (12 men, 21 women, aged 40-65 y and BMI 20-35 kg/m2) were identified using food frequency questionnaires and subsequently completed 3-day food diaries (3DFD) to confirm habitual WG consumption. Subjects consumed diets high in WG (> 80 g/d) or low in WG (< 16 g/d, refined grain [RG] diet) in a crossover study, with 6-week intervention periods, separated by a 4-week washout. Adherence was achieved by specific dietary advice and provision of a range of cereal food products. The 3DFD, diet compliance diaries and plasma alkylresorcinols (ARs) were used to verify compliance. Results On the WG intervention, consumption increased from 28 g/d to 168 g/d (P < 0.001), accompanied by an increase in plasma ARs (P < 0.001) and total fiber intake (P < 0.001), without any effect on energy or other macronutrients. While there were no effects on studied parameters, there were trends towards increased 24 h fecal weight (P = 0.08) and reduction in body weight (P = 0.10) and BMI (P = 0.08) during the WG compared to the RG period. Conclusion A combination of dietary advice and provision of commercially available food items enabled subjects with a low-moderate habitual consumption of WG to substantially increase their WG intake, but there was little effect on blood biochemical parameters, body composition, BP, fecal measurements or gut microbiology.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research (ICMR)
Interdisciplinary centres and themes > Centre for Food Security
Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:38389
Publisher:American Society for Nutrition

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