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More than smell – COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis

Parma, V., Ohla, K., Veldhuizen, M. G., Niv, M. Y., Kelly, C. E., Bakke, A. J., Cooper, K. W., Bouysset, C., Pirastu, N., Dibattista, M., Liuzza, M. T., Kaur, R., Pepino, M. Y., Schopf, V., Pereda-Loth, V., Olsson, S. B., Gerkin, R. C., Dominguez, P. R., Albayay, J., Farruggia, M. , Bhutani, S., Fjaeldstad, A. W., Kumar, R., Menini, A., Bensafi, M., Sandell, M., Konstantinidis, I., Di Pizio, A., Genovese, F., Ozturk, L., Thomas-Danguin, T., Frasnelli, J., Boesveldt, S., Saatci, O., Saraiva, L. R., Lin, C., Golebiowski, J., Hwang, L.-D., Ozdener, M. H., Guardia, M. D., Laudamiel, C., Ritchie, M., Havlicek, J., Pierron, D., Roura, E., Navarro, M., Nolden, A. A., Lim, J., Whitcroft, K. L., Colquitt, L. R., Ferdenzi, C., Brindha, E. V., Altundag, A., Maachi, A., Nunez-Parra, A., Patel, Z. M., Fiorucci, S., Philpott, C. M., Smith, B. C., Lundstrom, J. N., Mucignat, C., Parker, J. K., van den Brink, M., Schmuker, M., Fischmeister, F. P. S., Heinbockel, T., Shields, V. D. C., Faraji, F., Santamaria, E., Fredborg, W. E. A., Morini, G., Olofsson, J. K., Jalessi, M., Karni, N., D'Errico, A., Alizadeh, R., Pellegrino, R., Meyer, P., Huart, C., Chen, B., Soler, G. M., Alwashahi, M. K., Welge-Lussen, A., Freiherr, J., de Groot, J. H. B., Klein, H., Okamoto, M., Singh, P. B., Hsieh, J. W., Hummel, T., Reed, D. R., Munger, S. D. and Hayes, J. E. (2020) More than smell – COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis. Chem Senses. bjaa041. ISSN 1464-3553

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To link to this item DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjaa041

Abstract/Summary

Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation and initial results of a multi-lingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in three distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, 8 other, ages 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change ±100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7 ± 28.7, mean ± SD), taste (-69.0 ± 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3 ± 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell, but also affects taste and chemesthesis. The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Faculty of Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Food Research Group
ID Code:91214
Publisher:Oxford Academic

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