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Lower dietary intake of plant protein is associated with genetic risk of diabetes-related traits in urban Asian Indian adults

Alsulami, S., Bodhini, D., Sudha, V., Subramanian Shanthi Rani, C., Pradeepa, R., Mohan Anjana, R., Radha, V., Lovegrove, J. A., Gayathri, R., Mohan, V. and Vimaleswaran, K. S. (2021) Lower dietary intake of plant protein is associated with genetic risk of diabetes-related traits in urban Asian Indian adults. Nutrients, 13 (9). 3064. ISSN 2072-6643

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3390/nu13093064

Abstract/Summary

The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes among South Asians is caused by a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to examine the impact of dietary and genetic factors on metabolic traits in 1062 Asian Indians. Dietary assessment was performed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Transcription factor 7-like 2 and fat mass and obesity-associated genes were used to construct two metabolic genetic risk scores (GRS): 7-SNP and 3-SNP GRSs. Both 7-SNP GRS and 3-SNP GRS were associated with a higher risk of T2D (p = 0.0000134 and 0.008, respectively). The 3-SNP GRS was associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.010), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p = 0.002) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (p = 0.000066). There were significant interactions between 3-SNP GRS and protein intake (% of total energy intake) on FPG (Pinteraction = 0.011) and HbA1c (Pinteraction = 0.007), where among individuals with lower plant protein intake (<39 g/day) and those with >1 risk allele had higher FPG (p = 0.001) and HbA1c (p = 0.00006) than individuals with ≤1 risk allele. Our findings suggest that lower plant protein intake may be a contributor to the increased ethnic susceptibility to diabetes described in Asian Indians. Randomised clinical trials with increased plant protein in the diets of this population are needed to see whether the reduction of diabetes risk occurs in individuals with prediabetes.

Item Type:Article
Refereed:Yes
Divisions:Interdisciplinary Research Centres (IDRCs) > Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health (IFNH)
Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:100021
Publisher:MDPI

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