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Factors associated with low vitamin D status among older adults in Kuwait

ALbuloshi, T. ORCID:, Kamel, A. M. ORCID: and Spencer, J. P. E. ORCID: (2022) Factors associated with low vitamin D status among older adults in Kuwait. Nutrients, 14 (16). 3342. ISSN 2072-6643

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3390/nu14163342


Low vitamin D levels among older people represent a significant health problem worldwide. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in older people (aged ≥ 65) in the Kuwaiti population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven primary healthcare centers across Kuwait (November 2020 to June 2021). The participants (<i>n</i> = 237) had their serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (analyzed using LC-MS) classified as sufficiency 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) or deficiency &lt; 75 nmol/L (below 30 ng/mL). The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with participants in geriatric clinics. Binomial logistic regression analysis was applied to assess factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency was found to be present in two thirds of the participants (<i>n</i> = 150, 63%), with a higher prevalence of deficiency in participants who did not receive vitamin D supplements, compared to those who did (84% vs. 16%, <i>p</i> = 0.001). The results from the binary logistic regression showed that a low duration of sun exposure (OR = 0.24, 95% C.I. [0.08-0.7], <i>p</i> = 0.011), dark skin pigmentation (OR = 4.46, 95% [1.35-20.49], <i>p</i> = 0.026), and lower caloric intake (OR = 0.9, 95% C.I. [0.85-0.96], <i>p</i> = 0.001) were risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship was found between vitamin D levels and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (OR = 1.16, 95% C.I. [1.04-1.31], <i>p</i> = 0.016). These findings support the recommendation that vitamin D supplementation and adequate sunlight exposure are necessary for raising low vitamin D levels in older people in Kuwait.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:107533
Uncontrolled Keywords:Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, Cross-sectional study, Kuwait, Older People, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Humans, Vitamin D Deficiency, Parathyroid Hormone, Cross-Sectional Studies, Seasons, Dietary Supplements, Aged


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