Accessibility navigation

Screening for convergence insufficiency using the CISS is not indicated in young adults

Horwood, A. M. ORCID:, Toor, S. and Riddell, P. M. ORCID: (2014) Screening for convergence insufficiency using the CISS is not indicated in young adults. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 98 (5). pp. 679-683. ISSN 1468-2079

Text (Open Access) - Published Version
· Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
· Please see our End User Agreement before downloading.


It is advisable to refer to the publisher's version if you intend to cite from this work. See Guidance on citing.

To link to this item DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304533


Aim This paper presents Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) and orthoptic findings in a sample of typical young adults who considered themselves to have normal eyesight apart from weak spectacles. Methods The CISS questionnaire was administered,followed by a full orthoptic evaluation, to 167 university undergraduate and postgraduate students during the recruitment phase of another study. The primary criterion for recruitment to this study was that participants‘feltthey had normal eyesight'. A CISS score of ≥21 was used to define‘significant’symptoms, and convergence insufficiency (CI) was defined as convergence≥8cm from the nose with a fusion range <15Δ base-out with small or no exophoria. Results The group mean CISS score was 15.4. In all, 17(10%) of the participants were diagnosed with CI, but 11(65%) of these did not have significant symptoms. 41(25%) participants returned a‘high’CISS score of ≥21 but only 6 (15%) of these had genuine CI. Sensitivity of the CISS to detect CI in this asymptomatic sample was 38%; specificity 77%; positive predictive value 15%; and negative predictive value 92%. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.596 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.73). Conclusions‘Visual symptoms’are common in young adults, but often not related to any clinical defect, while true CI may be asymptomatic. This study suggests that screening for CI is not indicated

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences > Department of Psychology
Life Sciences > School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences > Perception and Action
ID Code:36476
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group


Downloads per month over past year

University Staff: Request a correction | Centaur Editors: Update this record

Page navigation