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In vitro digested milk proteins: Evaluation of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities, peptidomic profile, and mucin gene expression in HT29-MTX cells

Giromini, C., Lovegrove, J. A. ORCID:, Givens, D. I., Rebucci, R., Pinotti, L., Maffioli, E., Tedeschi, G., Sundaram, T. S. and Baldi, A. (2019) In vitro digested milk proteins: Evaluation of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities, peptidomic profile, and mucin gene expression in HT29-MTX cells. Journal of Dairy Science, 102 (12). pp. 10760-10771. ISSN 1525-3198

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To link to this item DOI: 10.3168/jds.2019-16833


Over the past decades, several studies investigated the health-promoting functions of milk peptides. However, to date many hurdles still exist regarding the widespread use of milk-derived bioactive peptides, as they may be degraded during gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, the aim of our study was to in vitro digest intact whey protein isolate (WPI) and casein proteins (CNP), mimicking in vivo digestion, to investigate their bioactive effects and to identify the potential peptides involved. Whey protein isolate and CNP were digested using a pepsin-pancreatin protocol and ultra-filtered (3-kDa cutoff membrane). A permeate (<3 kDa) and a retentate (>3 kDa) were obtained. Soy protein was included as a control (CTR). Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE1-I) and antioxidant activity (AOX) were assessed and compared with those observed in undigested proteins and CTR. Furthermore, the permeate was characterized by nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-nano ESI MS/MS) using a shotgun peptidomic approach, and retentate was further digested with trypsin and analyzed by MS using a shotgun proteomic approach to identify potentially bioactive peptides. Further, the effects of WPI, CNP, and CTR retentate on cell metabolic activity and on mucus production (MUC5AC and MUC2 gene expression) were assessed in intestinal goblet HT29-MTX-E12 cells. Results showed that WPI permeate induced a significant ACE1-I inhibitory effect [49.2 ± 0.64% (SEM)] compared with undigested WPI, CNP permeate, and retentate or CTR permeate (10.40 ± 1.07%). A significant increase in AOX (1.58 ± 0.04 and 1.61 ± 0.02 µmol of trolox AOX equivalents per mg of protein, respectively) upon digestion was found in WPI. Potentially bioactive peptides associated with ACE1-I and antihypertensive effects were identified in WPI permeate and CNP retentate. At specific concentrations, WPI, CNP, and CTR retentate were able to stimulate metabolic activity in HT29-MTX-E12 cells. Expression of MUC5AC was increased by CNP retentate and unaltered by WPI retentate; MUC2 expression was significantly increased by 0.33 mg/g of CNP and reduced by 1.33 mg/g of CNP. Our results confirm that milk proteins may be rich sources of bioactive compounds, with the greatest beneficial potential of CNP at the intestinal goblet cell level.

Item Type:Article
Divisions:Life Sciences > School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy > Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences > Human Nutrition Research Group
ID Code:86437
Uncontrolled Keywords:angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, in vitro digestion, milk protein, peptidomics


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