Moderate fish-oil supplementation reverses low-platelet, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and reduces plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in British Indo-Asians
Lovegrove, J.A., Lovegrove, S.S., Lesauvage, S.V.M., Brady, L.M., Saini, N., Minihane, A.M. and Williams, C.M. (2004) Moderate fish-oil supplementation reverses low-platelet, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and reduces plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in British Indo-Asians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79 (6). pp. 974-982. ISSN 0002-9165
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Background: The mechanisms involved in the increased mortality from coronary artery disease in British Indo-Asians are not well understood. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether British Indo-Asian Sikhs have higher plasma triacylglycerol concentrations, lower platelet phospholipid levels, and lower dietary intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than do age- and weight-matched Europeans and whether moderate dietary fish-oil intake can reverse these differences. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, fish-oil intervention study was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, 44 Europeans and 40 Indo-Asian Sikhs were randomly assigned to receive either 4.0 g fish oil [1.5 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.0 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or 4.0 g olive oil (control) daily for 12 wk. Results: At baseline, the Indo-Asians had significantly higher plasma triacylglycerol, small dense LDL, apolipoprotein B, and dietary and platelet phospholipid n-6 PUFA values and significantly lower long-chain n-3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) than did the Europeans. A significant decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, plasma apolipoprotein B-48, and platelet phospholipid arachidonic acid concentrations and a significant increase in plasma HDL concentrations and platelet phospholipid EPA and DHA levels were observed after fish-oil supplementation. No significant effect of ethnicity on the responses to fish-oil supplementation was observed. Conclusions: Moderate fish-oil supplementation contributes to a reversal of lipid abnormalities and low n-3 PUFA levels in Indo-Asians and should be considered as an important, yet simple, dietary manipulation to reduce CAD risk in Indo-Asians with an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype.