Gut fermentation products of insulin-derived prebiotics beneficially modulate markers of tumour progression in human colon tumour cells
Klinder, A., Gietl, E., Hughes, R., Jonkers, N., Karlsson, P., McGlyn, H., Pistoli, S., Tuohy, K., Rafter, J., Rowland, I., van Loo, J. and Pool-Zobel, B.L. (2004) Gut fermentation products of insulin-derived prebiotics beneficially modulate markers of tumour progression in human colon tumour cells. International Journal of Cancer Prevention, 1 (1). pp. 19-32. ISSN 1554-1134
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Insulin is a prebiotic food ingredient, which suppresses colon tumour growth and development in rats. In the gut lumen, it is fermented to lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Of these, butyrate has suppressing agent activities, but little is known concerning cellular responses to complex fermentation samples. To investigate the effects of fermentation products of insulin on cellular responses related to colon carcinogenesis. Fermentations were performed in anaerobic batch cultures or in a three-stage fermentation model that simulates conditions in colon-segments (proximal, transverse, distal). Substrate was insulin enriched with oligofructose (Raftilose® Synergy1), fermented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), and/or faecal inocula. HT29 or CaCo-2 cells were incubated with supernatants of the fermented samples (2.5%-25% v/v, 24-72 hours). Cellular parameters of survival, differentiation, tumour progression, and invasive growth were determined. Fermentation supernatants derived from probiotics and Synergy1 were more effective than with glucose. The additional fermentation with faecal slurries produced supernatants with lower toxicity, higher SCFA contents, and distinct cellular functions. The supernatant derived from the gut model vessel representing the distal colon, was most effective for all parameters, probably on account of higher butyrate-concentrations. Biological effects of insulin upon colon cells may be mediated not only by growth stimulation of the lactic acid-producing bacteria and/or production of butyrate, but also by other bacteria and products of the gut lumen. These newly reported properties of the supernatants to inhibit growth and metastases in colon tumour cells are important mechanisms of tumour suppression.