Soy-isoflavone-enriched foods and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women: interactions with genotype and equol production
Hall, W.L., Vafeiadou, K., Hallund, J., Bugel, S., Koebnick, C., Reimann, M., Ferrari, M., Branca, F., Talbot, D., Dadd, T., Nilsson, M., Dahlman-Wright, K., Gustafsson, J.A., Minihane, A.M. and Williams, C.M. (2005) Soy-isoflavone-enriched foods and inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women: interactions with genotype and equol production. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82 (6). pp. 1260-1268. ISSN 0002-9165
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Background: Dietary isoflavones are thought to be cardioprotective because of their structural similarity to estrogen. The reduction of concentrations of circulating inflammatory markers by estrogen may be one of the mechanisms by which premenopausal women are protected against cardiovascular disease. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of isolated soy isoflavones on inflammatory biomarkers [von Willebrand factor, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, C-reactive protein (CRP), and endothelin 1 concentrations]. Differences with respect to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in selected genes [estrogen receptor alpha (XbaI and PvuII), estrogen receptor beta [ER beta (AluI) and ER beta[cx] (Tsp5091), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Glu298Asp), apolipoprotein E (Apo E2, E3, and E4), and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (TaqIB)] and equol production were investigated. Design: One hundred seventeen healthy European postmenopausal women participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover dietary intervention trial. Isoflavone-enriched (genistein-to-daidzein ratio of 2:1;50 mg/d) or placebo cereal bars were consumed for 8 wk, with a washout period of 8 wk between the crossover. Plasma inflammatory factors were measured at 0 and 8 wk of each study arm. Results: Isoflavones improved CRP concentrations [odds ratio (95% Cl) for CRP values >1 mg/L for isoflavone compared with placebo: 0.43 (0.27, 0.69)]; no significant effects of isoflavone treatment on other plasma inflammatory markers were observed. No significant differences in the response to isoflavones were observed according to subgroups of equol production. Differences in the VCAM-1 response to isoflavones and to placebo were found with ER beta AluI genotypes. Conclusion: Isoflavones have beneficial effects on CRP concentrations, but not on other inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women, and may improve VCAM-1 in an ER beta gene polymorphic subgroup.