The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on N-ethyl-Nnitrosourea-induced mammary tumour incidence in the rat and on the composition of inositol- and ethanolamine-phospholipids of normal and tumour mammary tissue
Williams, C. M. and Maunder, K. (1994) The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on N-ethyl-Nnitrosourea-induced mammary tumour incidence in the rat and on the composition of inositol- and ethanolamine-phospholipids of normal and tumour mammary tissue. British Journal of Nutrition, 71 (4). pp. 543-552. ISSN 0007-1145
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To link to this article DOI: 10.1079/BJN19940161
This study has investigated the influence of dietary fatty acid composition on mammary tumour incidence in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated rats and has compared the susceptibility to dietary fatty acid modification of the membrane phospholipids phosphatidyliuositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from normal and tumour tissue of rat mammary gland. The incidence of mammary tumours was significantly lower in fish oil- (29%), compared with olive oil- (75%; P < 0.04) but not maize oil- (63%; P < 0.1) fed animals. No differences in PI fatty acid composition were found in normal or tumour tissue between rats fed on maize oil, olive oil or fish oil in diets from weaning. When normal and tumour tissue PI fatty acids were compared, significantly higher amounts of stearic acid (18:O) were found in tumour than normal tissue in rats given olive oil (P < 0.05). A similar trend was found in animals fed on maize oil, although differences between normal and tumour tissue did not reach a level of statistical significance (P < 0.1). In mammary PE, maize oil-fed control animals had significantly higher levels of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) than either olive oil- or fish oil-fed animals (P < 0.05, both cases) and levels of arachidonic acid were also higher in maize oil- compared with fish oil-fed animals (P < 0.05). In tumourbearing animals no differences in PE fatty acid composition were found between the three dietary groups. When normal and tumour tissue PE fatty acids were compared, significantly lower amounts of liuoleic acid (18:2n-6; P < 0.01) and significantly greater amounts of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; P < 0.05) were found in tumour than normal tissue of rats fed on maize oil. The present study shows that the fatty acid composition of PI from both normal and tumour tissue of the mammary gland is resistant to dietary fatty acid modification. The PE fraction is more susceptible to dietary modification and in this fraction there is evidence of increased conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in tumour compared with normal tissue. Lower tumour incidence rates in rats given fish oils may in part be due to alteration in prostanoid metabolism secondary to displacement of arachidonic acid by eicosapentaenoic acid, but PE rather than PI would appear to be the most likely locus for diet-induced alteration in prostanoid synthesis in this tissue. Effects of dietary fatty acids other than on the balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, and on prostanoid metabolism, should also be considered. The significance of increased stearic acid content of PI in tumours of olive oil-fed animals and the possible influence of dietary fatty acids on the capacity for stearic acid accumulation requires further study.
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