Postprandial lipoprotein lipase, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals of different fatty acid composition: comparison of saturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Zampelas, A., Murphy, M., Morgan, L. M. and Williams, C. M. (1994) Postprandial lipoprotein lipase, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals of different fatty acid composition: comparison of saturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48 (12). pp. 849-858. ISSN 0954-3007
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OBJECTIVE: The present study was carried out to investigate effects of meals, rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA), or n-6 or n-3 fatty acids, on postprandial plasma lipid and hormone concentrations as well as post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. DESIGN: The study was a randomized single-blind study comparing responses to three test meals. SETTING: The volunteers attended the Clinical Investigation Unit of the Royal Surrey County Hospital on three separate occasions in order to consume the meals. SUBJECTS: Twelve male volunteers with an average age of 22.5 +/- 1.4 years (mean +/- SD), were selected from the University of Surrey student population; one subject dropped out of the study because he found the test meal unpalatable. INTERVENTIONS: Three meals were given in the early evening and postprandial responses were followed overnight for 11h. The oils used to prepare each of the three test meals were: a mixed oil rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) which mimicked the fatty acid composition of the current UK diet, corn oil, rich in n-6 fatty acids and a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) rich in n-3 fatty acids. The oil under investigation (40 g) was incorporated into the test meals which were otherwise identical [208 g carbohydrates, 35 g protein, 5.65 MJ (1350 kcal) energy]. Postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TAG), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin responses, as well as post-heparin LPL activity (measured at 12 h postprandially only) were investigated. RESULTS: Fatty acids of the n-3 series significantly reduced plasma TAG responses compared to the mixed oil meal (P < 0.05) and increased post-heparin LPL activity 15 min after the injection of heparin (P < 0.01). A biphasic response was observed in TAG, with peak responses occurring at 1 h and between 3-7 h postprandially. GIP and insulin showed similar responses to the three test meals and no significant differences were observed. CONCLUSION: We conclude that fish oils can decrease postprandial plasma TAG levels partly through an increase in post-heparin LPL activity, which however, is not due to increased GIP or insulin concentrations.